Extreme weather events such as flooding, hurricanes and storm surge put extra pressure on coastal defenses and adjoining regions. Forecasting and warning services for natural disasters can help save lives but often require installation of flood forecasting and warning systems, along with decision support systems.
Salinity intrusion is of growing concern in many regions where natural fresh water flows are impacted because of direct human activity such urbanization and dam construction, as well as climate change. Mathematical model of these natural systems can be efficiently used for estimating and evaluating the nature of the salinity intrusions on a seasonal and long-term basis.
Changing atmospheric temperatures affects water temperature and has adverse impact on a wide range of aquatic life. Simulation of the thermal regime coupled with forecast temperature scenarios helps regulators minimize the impacts of climate change and evaluate mitigation options.
Adapting to rising sea levels and mitigating the impacts of storm surges and associated flooding is a pressing need in coastal areas.